Monday, September 11, 2006

 

Anglo-Saxon London

After the Romans left, the city of London fell into a decline. That's a polite way of saying that the population diminished drastically and large areas of the city were left in ruins.

London's location on the Thames was too good for this decline to continue, and the 7th century saw trade once more expand and the city grow once more.

Early in that century, perhaps in 604 AD, the first St. Paul's Cathedral was founded, on the site now occupied by the present St. Paul's.

By the 9th century, London was a very prosperous trading centre, and its wealth attracted the attention of Danish Vikings. The Danes periodically sailed up the Thames and attacked London. In 851 some 350 longboats full of Danes attacked and burned London to the ground.

The tale of the next century is a confused one, with first English, then Danish, then Norman kings controlling the city. The Danes were ousted from the city by Alfred the Great in 886, and Alfred made London a part of his kingdom of Wessex. In the years following the death of Alfred, however, the city fell once more into the hands of the Danes.

The Danes did not have it all their own way. In 1014 they were occupying the city when a large force of Anglo-Saxons and Norwegian Vikings sailed up the Thames to attack London. The Danes lined London Bridge and showered the attackers with spears.

Undaunted, the attackers pulled the roofs off nearby houses and held them over their heads in the boats. Thus protected, they were able to get close enough to the bridge to attach ropes to the piers and pull the bridge down. There is some speculation that the nursery rhyme "London Bridge is Falling Down" stems from this incident.

The attacks ceased when the Danish king Cnut (Canute) came to power in 1017. Cnut managed to unite the Danes with the Anglo-Saxons, and invited Danish merchants to settle in the city. London prospered under Cnut, but on his death the city reverted to Anglo-Saxon control under Edward the Confessor. Edward had been raised in Normandy, so his rule brought French influence and trade.

London was now the most prosperous, and largest city in the island of Britain - but it was not the capital of the realm. The official seat of government was at Winchester, although the royal residence was generally at London.

Edward the Confessor was an extremely religious man, and he made it his dream to build a vast monastery and church at an island on the Thames just upriver from the city. He refounded the abbey at Westminster, and moved his court there.

When Edward died in 1065, his successor, Harold, was crowned in the new abbey, cementing London's role as the most important city in England.

Saturday, June 04, 2005

 

International telephone cards

International telephone cards

Phone cards
IP-telephony phone cards experience great popularity all over the world.
And it is not surprising, the newest information technologies offer Internet-users opportunities unattainable in the past.
IP-telephony is the most modern technology, that provides an alternative way of low tariff long-distance and international telecommunication by means of the Internet.
The use of Internet reduces the price of telecommunication multiple times!
How to call using IP-telephony?
You buy a virtual phone card on the Internet. The virtual phone card works the same way as a real phone card, but You receive a PIN-code — not a real card.
To use the card You dial specially assigned Access number, enter card’s PIN number after a prompt, and then dial the destination number.
This service contributes large savings and is especially important for firms and private individuals who frequently make long distance and international phone calls.
For example, one minute of usual phone conversation between USA and France costs 50 cents; with phone cards' use it costs 2.30 cents. Therefore you save up near 4.8 US dollars for each ten-minute conversation. Savings are significant, aren' they!
How to earn with IP-telephony?
As the question of savings is important for all peoples, IP-telephony becomes a very attractive direction for improving profits.
Within the framework of Affiliate Program WebSTel.com company suggests it’s partners to participate in two Programs: “The Referral Program” and “Own Shop” as well.
Using already designed templates You create your own phone cards Internet shop and receive 10% to 20% from each sale.
What kinds of telephone cards does “Master-Bell” offer?
Master-Bell.pushline.com offers a variety of high quality prepaid phone cards that can be used all over the world for domestic and Long Distance calls.
There are rechargeable and non-rechargeable phone cards, Permanent PIN phone cards with PIN Free Access feature; cards with limited expiration period and unlimited use.
Who are IP-telephony phone cards major buyers?
It is very important to understand which Internet users are most interested in IP-telephony services. IP-telephony cards are used for calls from different countries, but the majority of customers are residents of the United States of America (97%) and Canada (2%).
As a rule, residents of these two countries not only have an access to the Internet, but also use it actively to make purchases from Internet-shops.
Immigrants, students, tourists and visitors use long-distance communication for business or personal contact most frequently



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